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Future of Bethesda: Building the Area’s Identity & Investing in its Growth

And there is more.  Avalon Energy Services is pleased to announce it will co-sponsor Bisnow’s July 26 educational networking event, “Future of Bethesda: Building the Area’s Identity & Investing in its Growth.”  Topics to be discussed include:

  1. How can you capitalize on the growth promised by the Marriott headquarters and hotel?
  2. What type of tenant is ideal for Carr’s Apex Building?
  3. Will Bethesda ever see a nightlife scene? Does it want one?
  4. With a historically strong retail market, is Bethesda immune to the asset class’s national uncertainty?
  5. How can Bethesda develop a unique identity as a suburb of DC?

Find more information about this exciting event here.

Friends of Avalon Energy Services can receive 20% off the price of admission by using the following code: AES20UZ1A5.

As previously announced, Avalon Energy Services is also co-sponsoring Bisnow’s July 24 event, “Baltimore-Washington Industrial & Logistics Forecast: How Quickly is the Market Actually Growing and Can You Capitalize on It?”  Check out our previous post for more details and the Avalon Energy Services friends’ discount code.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at info@avalonenergy.us.

Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.

Copyright 2018 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

 

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Baltimore-Washington Industrial & Logistics Forecast

Avalon Energy Services is pleased to announce it is co-sponsoring Bisnow’s July 24 educational networking event, “Baltimore-Washington Industrial & Logistics Forecast: How Quickly is the Market Actually Growing and Can You Capitalize on It?”  Topics to be discussed include:

  1. With more and more companies adapting to an e-commerce model, are they prepared for the industrial world? Are they making educated decisions in their industrial moves, leases and logistics?
  2. As more developers grow their industrial portfolios, will this create healthy competition for the marketplace?
  3. How will the trucking labor shortage impact drayage costs? Will self-driving vehicles play a role in shipping?
  4. As vacancy rates continue to decline, how high will rent rise?
  5. Is there a chance we are over estimating e-commerce’s growth, or will its exponential growth continue as expected by many?

Find more information about this exciting event here.  Friends of Avalon Energy Services can receive 20% off the price of admission by using the following code: AES20S31XL.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at info@avalonenergy.us.

Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.

Copyright 2018 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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NCAC – 22nd Annual Washington Energy Policy Conference

ONE WEEK FROM TODAY

Secure your spot here: https://www.ncac-usaee.org/event-2845352

Energy Technologies and Innovations: A Disturbance in the [Market] Force

Thursday, April 12, 2018, 8:30 AM to 6:00 PM

The George Washington University

Keynote speakers:

Mark P. Mills, Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute

Gil Quiniones, President and CEO, New York Power Authority

In addition to these keynote speakers, the following panels will be held:

PANEL 1: The Grid Awakens: Electricity Generation and Demand
Phil Jones, Executive Director, Alliance for Transportation Electrification
Bryce Smith, Founder and CEO, LevelTen Energy
John Zahurancik, COO, Fluence
Barney Rush, Board Member ISO New England, Rush Energy Consulting (moderator)

PANEL 2: Hydrocarbons Strike Back: Innovations to Maintain the Status Quo

John Eichberger, Executive Director, Fuels Institute
Sid Green, President, Enhanced Production Inc.
Mike Trammel, Vice President for Government, Environmental, and Regulatory Affairs, Excelerate
Rita Beale, CEO and President, Energy Unlimited (moderator)

PANEL 3: Innovation: A New Hope in Energy

Bill Farris, Associate Laboratory Director for Innovation, Partnering, and Outreach, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Elisabeth Olson, Economist, Office of Energy Policy & Innovation, FERC
Christopher Peoples, Managing Partner, Peoples Partners and Associates
Devin Hartman, Electricity Policy Manager, R Street Institute (moderator)

PANEL 4: Return of Energy Policy

Adele Morris, Policy Director for Climate and Energy Economics, Brookings
Jason Stanek, Senior Counsel, House Energy & Commerce Committee, Subcommittee on Energy
Pat Wood, Chairman, Dynegy
Kevin Book, Managing Partner, ClearView Energy Partners (moderator)

Note: Chatham House Rules apply.

Full Agenda and to register –> http://www.ncac-usaee.org/events.php#event151

RSVP: Required

Conference Information:

Organizer: Michael Ratner, NCAC-USAEE Vice President (mratner@crs.loc.gov) / 202-707-9529
Venue: The George Washington University, The Marvin Center, 3rd floor, Continental Ballroom, 800 21st Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052

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Balancing Congestion

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission approved a change in PJM’s (the Mid-Atlantic grid operator) tariff, allowing them to shift what are called “balancing congestion” costs to load serving entities.  FERC approved PJM’s tariff revision with an effective date of June 1.  Suppliers have indicated that they intend to pass through these charges.  Suppliers include a change of law or regulation provision in their agreements.  Basically, they commit to a fixed price, but allow for pass-throughs when there is a change in law or regulation.  Please email or call to discuss the potential impact of these charges to you.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.AvalonEnergy.US, email us at info@avalonenergy.us, or call us at 888-484-8096.

Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.

Copyright 2017 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Natural Gas and Electricity Are Parting Ways – Part 2

In our last article, Natural Gas and Electricity Are Parting Ways – Part 1, we explored the weakening correlation between wholesale natural gas prices and electricity prices in the Mid-Atlantic.  While natural gas prices have fallen dramatically over the past seven years, and electricity prices have fallen as well, electricity prices have not fallen as far.  We discussed how this weakening relationship is, in part, a result of natural gas-fired generating units more and more often being dispatched before coal-fired units.  In this article, we look at the influence of capacity prices.

Capacity

The cost of energy delivered by a competitive supplier consists of several elements—generation, capacity, transmission, and ancillary services.  Costs to suppliers resulting from PJM’s energy auctions are reflected in competitive suppliers’ generation charges.  Competitive suppliers are also required to own or to reserve generation capacity.  PJM runs separate capacity auctions to place a price on this capacity.  These auctions establish capacity prices for each of the three consecutive future planning years.

Polar Vortex 

During the depths of the Polar Vortex of January 2014 (see What Does Volatility Look Like?), there were times when more than 20% of generation capacity in PJM was unable to respond when dispatched by the grid operator.  The grid operator then had to call upon non-economic (meaning more costly) resources to fill in, some of which also were unable to respond.  The grid came within a few thousand megawatts of brownouts, and prices soared to more than $2,600 per megawatt hour during some hours.

Capacity Performance

Clearly more reliable generation capacity was required.  PJM proposed, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved, a change in regulation creating a new Capacity Performance product.  With Capacity Performance, PJM established new, more stringent requirements for generation regardless of weather conditions and system conditions, and also established onerous penalties in the event that generation does not respond when called.  Most generators bid their capacity again during two Transitional Auctions, for the planning years 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. As a result, due to this change in regulation, capacity prices have been reset higher for each of these two planning year periods.

The table above presents, for the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 planning years, capacity prices that were originally established as part of Base Residual Auctions (BRA) and the new prices established as part of Capacity Performance (CP) Transition Auctions.

Additional investment was clearly needed in order to improve system reliability.  PJM’s strategy with Capacity Performance is, on the one hand, to provide generators “resources to invest in improvements in such areas as dual-fuel capability, securing firmer natural gas supplies and upgrading plant equipment,” while, on the other hand, imposing substantial penalties for non-performance.

These increased costs associated with Capacity Performance, which will be reflected in electricity prices, are unassociated with changes in natural gas prices and are another driver of the decline in correlation between electricity prices and natural gas prices.

Notes:

– Evelyn Teel contributed to this article

– Capacity prices and quote from PJM website

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.AvalonEnergy.US, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.  Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.  Copyright 2015 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Natural Gas and Electricity Are Parting Ways – Part 1

In recent articles, we have explored the dramatic decline in natural gas prices over the past seven years.  See These Are Days To Remember and 10,000 Maniacs Were Right.

In the US Mid-Atlantic, natural gas and electricity prices have, over time, tended to move together.  While there has by no means been a perfect correlation between the two, the relationship has been strong.

Over the past 15 years, the coefficient of determination (R2) has averaged about 67% (see yellow line).  In other words, over this time period, 2/3 of the change in electricity prices can be explained by changes in natural gas prices.  More recently, however, the strength of this relationship has weakened and continues to weaken further (see red line).  Electricity prices have declined but not as precipitously as those of natural gas.

Why has this relationship weakened?  Two significant drivers relate to (i) dispatch order and (ii) capacity prices.

Dispatch Order

In scheduling energy to serve electricity users, the grid operator, PJM, utilizes a least-cost dispatch model.  PJM develops an expectation of projected system load on an hourly basis and then seeks bids from generators to supply energy to serve this load.  After bids have been submitted, for each hour, PJM accepts the lowest cost offers first and then works their way through higher price offers until sufficient supply has been cleared to match the projected load.  (There are a number of system constraints and complications that must be incorporated into the process, but this pretty much captures it.)  For each hour, the price at which the last megawatt-hour (MWh) clears sets the price for all the supply offers that clear in that hour.

For many years, the last generating units cleared were generally natural gas-fired units.  As a result, it has been these natural gas units that have set the price for electricity, leading to the strong link between natural gas prices and electricity prices.  A common understanding was that “as natural gas prices go, so go electricity prices.”

But now, low natural gas prices are leading to lower and lower supply bids by natural gas-fired generators, causing them to more frequently fall down the dispatch order and clear before coal-fired units.  Because of this, coal fired units are now more often becoming the marginal, or price-setting, units.  And, as a result, falling natural gas prices have not driven down electricity prices to the extent they once would have.

In addition to procuring energy, electricity wholesale suppliers must also own or procure capacity.  In our next article, we will look at how capacity costs influence electricity prices.

Evelyn Teel contributed to this article.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.AvalonEnergy.US, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.  Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.  Copyright 2015 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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10,000 Maniacs Were Right

The dramatic decline of natural gas prices was the focus of our last article (These Are Days to Remember).  As we noted then, in real dollars, natural gas prices were near all-time lows.  Since then, natural gas prices have continued to fall.

Yesterday the November futures contract settled at $2.033 per mmBtu.  The last time the November contract was this low was 17 years ago in 1998, when it closed at $1.97 per mmBtu.

The “winter strip” is the simple average of natural gas futures prices for the five month period of November, December, January, February, and March.  These five months represent the winter heating season, when demand for natural gas is historically the greatest and natural gas prices, correspondingly, are generally highest.

With the rolling off of the November contract yesterday, the 2015/2016 winter strip closed out at $2.349 per mmBtu.

The graph below puts this into perspective by comparing the current winter strip (in red) to that of previous winters.

Incredible.  These are days to remember.

Evelyn Teel contributed to this article.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.AvalonEnergy.US, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.  Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.  Copyright 2015 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Capacity Factor – Part 2

In our previous article we looked at Capacity Factor and how it differs between nuclear generation and solar PV (photovoltaic).   We concluded that in order to generate the same amount of electricity as 1/3 of the capacity of the US nuclear generation fleet (33,042 MW), 154,760 MW of solar PV capacity would be required.  This is a result of the substantially different Capacity Factors of nuclear (90.9%) and solar PV (19.4%) and is summarized in the table below.

A reader asked how much solar PV capacity would be needed in order for solar PV to generate as much electricity as the entire US nuclear generation fleet.  As noted in the previous article, the current US nuclear generation fleet consists of 100 operating units with a combined capacity of 99,125 MW which, during 2013, produced 789,016,510 MWh of electricity.

In order to calculate the amount of solar PV capacity needed, we can rearrange the Capacity Factor formula we used last time as follows:

Solving for the solar PV capacity needed to supply the same amount of electricity as the US nuclear generation fleet, we arrive at the following:

Capacity (MW) = 789,016,510 MWh / (19.4% x 8,760 hours/year)

Capacity (MW) = 464,280

In summary, 464,280 MW of solar PV capacity would be needed in order for solar PV to generate as much electricity as the entire US nuclear generation fleet.  This is 365,155 MW more than the existing 99,125 MW of installed nuclear capacity and is summarized in the table below:

As noted in our previous article, solar PV, like other sources of electricity generation (nuclear, wind, coal, natural gas, geothermal, biomass, etc.) comes with a set of tradeoffs.  Each source has its own strengths and weaknesses.  The focus here is simply on Capacity Factor.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Notes:

Data from the US Energy Information Administration

Evelyn Teel contributed to this article.

Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.

Copyright 2014 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Real Electricity Prices (Energy Prices Always Go Up, Part 5)

This article is part of an occasional series that examines the common perception that energy prices always go up.  We have examined both electricity prices (read here and here) and natural gas prices (read here and here).

An article published recently by CNSNews.com states that, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), “The price of electricity hit a record for the month of October” and that “Americans now pay 42 percent more for electricity than they did a decade ago.”  Sounds scary.

Is it?  Let’s see.

Here, in graphical form, are the October US City Average electricity prices, in dollars per kilowatt-hour (kWh), as found on the BLS website.

During the period of time from 2003 to 2013, October electricity prices rose from $0.093/kWh to $0.132/kWh, a 41.9% increase.

It is important to note that the data above are in “nominal” dollars and do not account for the effects of inflation.  Over the time period examined, the purchasing power of a dollar has declined, so the electricity prices presented above are not being compared on a consistent basis.  In order to make the data consistent, we can normalize it by adjusting for inflation by converting the data to “real” 2013 dollars.  Another BLS dataset can help with this.

The BLS tracks changes in the purchasing power of a dollar through its Consumer Price Index (CPI).  The CPI can be used to convert dollar values from past years into inflation-adjusted dollar values for the current year.  For example, the 2003 electricity prices can be converted to 2013 dollars as follows:

Electricity Price 2013 = Electricity Price 2003 x (CPI Base Year / CPI Current Year)

Electricity Price 2013 = $0.093/kWh x (232.9/184.0)

Electricity Price 2013 = $0.118/kWh

The graph below shows the nominal electricity prices presented above along with the same data converted to real 2013 dollars:

The 42% increase on a nominal basis equates to only a 12% increase in real dollars.  Not quite so scary.

Looking further back in time, how have electricity prices behaved in nominal and real terms?

The graph below shows October electricity prices from the same BLS dataset for the period of time 1979 to 2013.

Over this period, October electricity prices have increased from $0.053/kWh to $0.132/kWh, a 149.1% increase.

The graph below shows the same data converted to real 2013 dollars:

In real 2013 dollars, October electricity prices have DECLINED from $0.170/kWh to $0.132/kWh.  This is a 22.4% decline in real dollars.

Do electricity prices always go up?  In real terms, no.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.

Copyright 2013 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC    

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Day-Ahead and Real-Time Pricing in NYISO

We recently looked at the Day-Ahead and Real-Time electricity markets in PJM.  The New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) also operates a two settlement process with Day-Ahead (DA) and Real-Time (RT) markets, which are the subjects of this article.

First some background.

The NYISO, like only two other ISOs (CalISO and ERCOT), serves only one state.  New York State has a population of 19.6 million people, 8.3 million of whom  live in New York City.  NYISO recorded its maximum summer peak load of 33,939 megawatts during 2006 and its maximum winter peak load of 25,541 megawatts during 2004/2005.  NYISO is very dependent on natural gas as a fuel source and minimally dependent on coal.  The make-up of generation in NYISO is as follows:

The NY Control Area is broken up into 11 Load Zones, labeled A through K.  Across the state, electric power generally flows from west to east and from north to south.

New York Independent System Operator – Control Area Load Zones

Roughly a third of the load in NYISO is located in Zone J (New York City).  The next highest load areas are Zone K (Long Island) and Zone C (Central, which includes Syracuse and Ithaca).  The remaining eight zones account for less than 50% of the total load in NYISO.  See the tables below:

With so much load concentrated in Zones J (NYC) and K (Long Island), and with most of the electricity generation located outside of these zones, energy supply in these two zones is often constrained,   leading to higher pricing.  We will see this later.

The Day-Ahead market is a forward market in which hourly Locational Based Marginal Prices (LBMP) are calculated for the next operating day based on generation offers, demand bids, and scheduled bilateral transactions.  The Real-Time market is a spot market in which current LBMPs are calculated at five-minute intervals based on actual grid operating conditions.  The Real-Time market is also referred to as a “balancing market.”

The following analysis is based on NYISO hourly pricing data over the two year period ending June 30, 2013—a total of 17,544 hours.

The table below summarizes, by zone, hourly pricing in the NYISO Day-Ahead market.

Zones J (NYC) and K (Long Island) have higher average pricing and significantly higher variance in pricing than other zones, as highlighted by their maximum and minimum values.

The table below summarizes hourly pricing data for the Real-Time market.

Average pricing in the Real-Time market is about the same as in the Day-Ahead market.  However, the variability in prices in the Real-Time market is much greater across the board.  This stands out graphically as shown below.

The following graphs plot all 17,544 hourly Day-Ahead prices for both Zone A (West) and Zone K (Long Island).  The vertical scales are kept constant for comparison purposes.  The red lines on each graph are trend lines.        

And, the two graphs below plot all 17,544 Real-Time prices for both zones.

Another way to look at this volatility is to examine the standard deviation of prices.  The results are presented on the graph below.  Comparing Zone K to Zone A, Day-Ahead prices were 3.4 times more variable in Zone K and Real-Time prices were 2.4 more variable in Zone K.    

Separate from the level of volatility, especially in Zones J and K, average prices in all of the zones have fallen considerably in recent years.  Average prices in Zone J and Zone K are less than half what they were in 2008.     

Conclusions:

Real-Time prices are more volatile than Day-Ahead prices.

Zone J (NYC) and Zone K (Long Island) prices are more volatile than those of the other nine zones in the NY Control Area.

Notes:

– The New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) is a not-for-profit corporation that began operations in 1999.  The NYISO operates New York’s bulk electricity grid, administers the state’s wholesale electricity markets, and provides comprehensive reliability planning for the state’s bulk electricity system.

– Underlying data and the control area map are from the New York Independent System Operator.

– Evelyn Teel contributed to this article.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484- 8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Please feel free to share this article.  If you do, please email or post the web link.  Unauthorized copying, retransmission, or republication is prohibited.

Copyright 2013 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC