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Energy Prices Always Go Up (Part 4)

As discussed several times previously on this blog, there is a common perception that energy prices always go up.  We have examined both natural gas prices (read here and  here) and electricity prices (read here).

In this post, we look again at electricity prices—specifically, how they behaved in PJM last year.

PJM zonal day-ahead load weighted average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) averaged $50.92 per megawatt-hour (MWh) during 2010 and $45.19 during 2011, an 11.3% decline.  During 2012, this weighted average price dropped to $34.55 per MWh, a further 33.6% decline.  This is a stunning decrease and was driven primarily by the decline in natural gas prices.  Electricity and natural gas prices are strongly correlated in PJM as natural gas-fired generating units are generally the marginal units called upon in PJM’s least cost dispatch model.

LMPs vary significantly by zone, as shown on the graph below.

The change in average LMPs between 2011 and 2012 varied by zone but, in all cases, was lower during 2012.  The decline ranged from 19.4% in the Commonwealth Edison zone to 35% in the Atlantic City Electric zone.  A sampling of zonal price changes is presented in the table below.

The overall decline can also be seen in the further contraction of prices into the lower end of the frequency distribution shown below.

From January 2007 to December 2012, Day Ahead LMPs in PJM averaged $46.57 per MWh.  This corresponds to the period during which PJM has in place its capacity market model, referred to as its Reliability Pricing model (RPM).  Current LMPs are well below this average, as shown in the graph below.

The LMPs plotted above are in nominal dollars and do not take into account inflation.  The effect of inflation can be illustrated by increasing the right side of the red line relative to the left side.  In other words, in real dollars, the decline in electricity prices in PJM is more dramatic than shown.

Do energy prices always go up?  The answer remains “no” as it relates to electricity and natural gas prices.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Avalon Energy Services Completes New Energy Supply Contracts on behalf of Donohoe Real Estate Services

BETHESDA, Md., May 14, 2013 – Avalon Energy Services, the Mid-Atlantic’s leading energy consulting firm, announced today that they successfully completed an electricity procurement for 19 commercial real estate properties managed by Donohoe Real Estate Services. The properties are located in Maryland and the District of Columbia.  Under the new contracts, the properties will save more than $1.5 million per year on electricity supply costs.

“We are pleased to assist the premier firm of Donohoe Real Estate Services in obtaining such great savings,” said Jim McDonnell, Chief Operating Officer of Avalon Energy.

Tim Gallagher, President of Donohoe Real Estate Services, noted “At Donohoe, we have a more than century long tradition of creating value for our tenants and our property owners.  Working with Avalon Energy has allowed us to further build upon this tradition.”

Avalon Energy Services, LLC (Avalon Energy) provides a range of energy consulting services to commercial, industrial, institutional, and government customers.  Services include consulting related to energy procurement, energy audits, demand side management, and the implementation of distributed generation and combined heat and power (CHP) applications.  Avalon Energy’s website is www.avalonenergy.us.

Founded in 1884, The Donohoe Companies is the oldest full-service real estate organization in the Washington, DC region and also one of the largest — ranked in the top 50 private companies in the metropolitan area.

Donohoe has invested billions of dollars in Washington’s premier office, hotel, retail, industrial, and residential projects.  In addition, Donohoe provides a full range of building management, brokerage, and maintenance services to major institutions, corporations, and associations.

Today, guided by a fourth generation of the founding family, Donohoe remains committed to the basic values of excellence, integrity, and customer satisfaction. The philosophy and tradition that has brought Donohoe over a century of success continues to be the foundation of their business approach — hard work, fair play, and the willingness to take reasonable risks with prudent provision for the future.   For more information, please visit Donohoe’s website at www.donohoe.com.

Contact:

Jim McDonnell                                                Kevin Furnary

Chief Operating Officer                                 Senior Consultant

Avalon Energy Services, LLC                    Avalon Energy Services, LLC

888-484-8096, ext 202                               703-868-5677

jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us                   kfurnary@avalonenergy.us

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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What Does a Superstorm Look Like?

In previous blog posts, we have examined how weather and other events affect electricity prices.

What Does a Derecho Look Like?

What Does a Warm Day Look Like?

What Does an Earthquake Look Like?

We continue this series by looking at how Superstorm Sandy impacted electricity prices in the PJM service area.

After marching northward off the shore of the Atlantic coast, almost 1,000 mile wide Hurricane Sandy became Superstorm Sandy.  She made a sharp left turn and headed due west.  The eye of the storm, along with its tidal surge and 90 mile per hour winds, then made landfall in southern New Jersey around 6:30 PM on Monday, October 29, 2012.

The storm’s destructive winds caused extensive damage to property along its path.  This damage led to large and rapid reductions in electric load, first in New Jersey, the Delmarva Peninsula and New York, and soon thereafter, elsewhere in the Northeast.

As the storm approached land, the locational marginal prices (LMP) of electricity in the Mid Atlantic were about $40 to $50 per megawatt-hour.   After landfall, in the areas where the hurricane hit hardest in PJM – New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula – LMPs dropped dramatically and turned negative.  The image below is of a contour map of LMP prices in PJM at 9:10 PM on Monday, October 29.

The phenomenon of negative LMPs occurs from time to time, but is infrequent.  Negative LMPs rarely drop so far, across such a wide area, and for such an extended period of time as occurred here.  Negative LMPs even backed up into eastern and northern Pennsylvania.  The areas that were less affected by the storm, such as mainland Maryland and Virginia, maintained more normal LMP levels.

The graph below shows select PJM LMPs over the course of the entire day (midnight to midnight, Monday, October 29), before and after landfall of Superstorm Sandy.

Electricity prices remained fairly steady overall within PJM over the course of the day, with a peak occurring around 10 AM.  After the eye of the storm hit land, LMPs in the PSEG Zone (the largest electric utility in New Jersey) first spiked upwards and then turned negative for more than three hours.  At one point, LMPs in the PSEG Zone approached negative $400 per megawatt-hour (see pink line above).

System wide, load within PJM declined as the storm approached, landed and barreled into New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New York.  This progression can be seen by the steepness of the change in instantaneous demand starting around 6 PM on the blue curve below.

Closer to the eye of the storm, in the Atlantic City Electric Zone (AE Zone), load began to fall off starting around 10 AM, continued to drop throughout the afternoon, showed some short lived recovery around 8 PM, and then fell precipitously thereafter.

Further north and west in New Jersey, in the Public Service Electric and Gas Zone (PS Zone), load similarly exhibited a slow fall off after noon and then a rapid decline starting around 6 PM.

In the Philadelphia Electric area, (PE Zone) load peaked at about 10 AM, slowly declined at first, and then also dropped off sharply starting around 6 PM.

The graph below shows the impact of Superstorm Sandy on the movement of power into and out of the PJM grid.  During most of the day, PJM was importing about 2,200 MW and continued to do so until about 10:30 PM when, the need for power greatly reduced, imports from adjacent grids fell dramatically.

The following day, Tuesday, October 30, LMPs were volatile and mostly positive as shown on the graph below.  This volatility was caused by the episodic restoration of generation, transmission lines, and sub-stations and distribution lines.

The overall decline in load PJM-wide and its subsequent slow recovery can be seen on the graph below.

This graph shows the AE Zone slowly recovering.

Load in the PS Zone also recovered slowly but in an even more sporadic manner.

Load recovery in the PE Zone followed a similar pattern.

Conclusion

The high winds, rain and tidal surge associated with Superstorm Sandy caused devastation to a large area of the Northeast.  Negative LMPs are generally short lived, transitory phenomena.  The magnitude of the initial damage caused by Superstorm Sandy can be seen by the highly negative LMPs that occurred over such a wide area, and for such an extended period of time.   This was a result of rapid decline of load and the inability of supply to be ramped down quickly to match the reduced level of load.

Notes:

– “PJM” refers to the PJM Interconnection, which is a Regional Transmission Organization and operates the electric transmission system serving all or parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

– Satelite image from www.weather.com.

– Other data and maps from PJM.

– David White and Evelyn McDonnell contributed to this article.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484- 8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

 

 

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Best Friends? – Natural Gas and Electricity Prices – An Update

By David White

In a post from January 2012, the declining correlation between the price of natural gas and the price of electricity was explored (click here).  At that time, the correlation between the two was declining as a result of the greater recovery in electricity prices relative to those of natural gas.  The graphs from that post are presented below.

The graph on the left shows monthly average electricity and natural gas prices spanning January 1, 2001 through November 2011.  The graph on the right shows the correlation between the two.  This correlation peaked at 97.2% during May 2010, then declined to 45.4% during November 2011.

Since this post, both electricity prices and natural gas prices have generally moved upwards.  While they both have recovered, the difference between them has increased.  In other words,   Electricity prices have increased more than natural gas prices.  Plotted below is the continuation of electricity and natural gas prices through September 2012, displaying this recent rise in prices.

Despite the increased gap between electricity and natural gas prices, the correlation between them has increased significantly since the last posting.  This correlation is plotted below.

On the graph, the blue line represents the data presented in the January 2012 post, and the red line is the newly acquired data.  Since the last posting, the correlation between the prices peaked at 79.9% in April 2012 and, as of September 2012, is 71.9%.  This is a significant increase from the correlation value of 45.4% that was observed in November 2011.  Through last November, the correlation had an 11-year historical average of roughly 71% and is represented by the orange line on the graph.  While the correlation of electricity and natural gas prices has fluctuated significantly over the years and this pattern is sure to continue in the future, at the moment the correlation between electricity and natural gas prices is regressing to the historical mean.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484- 8096, or email us at whitedm02@gmail.com or jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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What Does a Derecho Look Like?

Late Friday, June 29, 2012 a destructive set of thunderstorms swept through the Mid-Atlantic region.  With winds of up to 80 mph, the storms produced extensive damage and left several million utility customers without electricity.  The National Weather Service (NWS) refers to this kind of fast-moving, long-lived, large, and violent thunderstorm complex as a “derecho.”

On the NWS map below, blue marks indicate reports of damaging wind.  Black squares indicate winds over 75 mph.

The graph below shows PJM system wide load during the day of Friday, June 29, 2012, with demand peaking at 147,183 MW at 16:20 (blue line).  Late in the evening, you can see the drop off in demand resulting from the storm, with the most rapid decline starting around 22:00.

The map below shows LMPs at 23:45 on Friday, 6-29-12, shortly after the storms had passed over Washington, DC and Baltimore but had not yet reached their full intensity on the Delmarva Peninsula and in southern New Jersey.  LMP prices in the legend are in dollars per megawatt-hour.


On Saturday, 6-30-12, demand in PJM reached only 120,024 MW at 17:30 (see blue line below), a reduction of more than 27,159 MW, or more than 18% lower than peak demand the day before.

The graph below shows demand within the Pepco Zone during Friday, 6-29-12.  Demand in the Pepco Zone reached a peak of 6,592 MW at 16:30 and then slowly dropped to about 5,500 MW by 22:30.  Then the storm hit.  As the storm made its way over Pepco’s service territory, demand plummeted by 3,000 MW, or 45%, in less than one hour as much of the distribution system was damaged and service rendered inoperable.

The following day, Saturday, 6-30-12, demand in the Pepco Zone continued to decline until 07:00, when it reached a low of approximately 2,300 MW.  Later the same day, demand peaked at only 3,939 MW, a reduction of 2,653 MW or 40% lower than the prior day’s peak.  Note the different vertical scale on the graph below.

The story was similar in the Baltimore area.  Demand in the BGE Zone peaked at 6,852 MW during Friday, 6-29-12.  The storm hit the area around 22:30, after which demand plummeted over the course of about an hour from about 6,000 MW to about 3,400 MW.

The following day, demand in the BGE Zone peaked at only 4,291 MW.

The table below summarizes peak demand before and after the storm.  On Friday, 6-29-12, prior to the storm, peak demand in PJM was 147,183 MW.  The following day peak demand was 120,024 MW, a more than 18% decline.  However, it is important to note that there are factors other than the storm related outages that influenced the decline in peak demand, most notably the day of the week.  6-30-12 (the day after the storm) was a Saturday, and on weekends commercial load is generally lower.  In fact, the “day ahead” peak demand forecast for 6-30-12 (made before the storm hit) was 135,065 MW.  This is a more realistic reference from which to measure how much load in PJM was still offline 18 hours after the storm.  By this reference, load was off by 15,040 MW, or a substantial 11%.  The level of load reduction in the Pepco and BGE zones was much more significant.

The graph below shows locational marginal prices ($/MWh) over the course of the day of Friday, 6-29-12.  Prices peaked at $280/MWh during the late afternoon and remained volatile during much of the evening.  When the storm hit the major East Coast load centers at about 22:30, LMPs briefly sank to $0, recovered, and then diverged significantly as midnight approached.  LMPs in the Pepco Zone went negative as there was more supply than the now greatly diminished load.  Negative LMPs in a congested zone, such as the Pepco Zone, is a highly unusual phenomenon and is an indicator of how rapid and extensive the damage was during the storm.

The graph below shows a close up of this significant divergence:

Before June 29, few of us were familiar with the term “derecho.”  Now we know what one looks like.

Notes:

– “PJM” refers to the PJM Interconnection, which is a Regional Transmission Organization and operates the electric transmission system serving all or parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

– Data and maps from PJM.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484- 8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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What does a warm day look like?

What does a warm day look like?

Here are several ways of looking at one particularly warm day – June 21, 2012.

The blue line on the graph below shows instantaneous electricity demand in PJM (see note 1).

Electricity demand ebbed to 88,367 megawatts at 4:25 AM and then began to rise as temperatures in the Mid-Atlantic climbed into the upper 90s.  Overall demand in PJM peaked at 145,331 megawatts during the late afternoon at 4:55 PM.

The graph below plots the Locational Marginal Price (LMP) for various zones and nodes within the PJM Interconnection footprint over the 24 hour period of time spanning 6 PM June 20 to 6 PM June 21.

LMPs don’t follow the same smooth path overall demand follows.

Generation is concentrated on the western side of the power grid and demand is concentrated in the East in the load centers stretching from northern New Jersey through Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington, DC.  As a result, power generally flows from West to East through the high voltage transmission network.

The grid operator has many tools at its disposal to match supply to demand.  These tools include generation (base load, intermediate, peaking, and intermittent sources), spinning reserve, and demand response.  And, they need all of them.  As they match supply with demand, electrical, mechanical, and operational constraints intervene.  Generators trip.  Transmission lines reach their capacity.  Thermal limits become exceeded.  The sun and wind start and stop shining and blowing.  Load jumps up and down.  Because electricity cannot be stored in meaningful quantities, imbalances between supply and demand are reflected immediately in the price of electricity in the form of LMPs.

Looking again at the graph above, for almost half of the 24 hour period, LMPs ranged between $20 and $40 per megawatt-hour (MWh).  As temperatures rose driving up demand, the electric grid became more and more stressed, and LMPs became more and more volatile.

Peak prices occurred at 3:50 PM.  Prices at that moment averaged $105.11/MWH and were as low as $19.69 in the Commonwealth Edison zone and as high as $235.46 in the Jersey Central zone.  The table below shows LMPs at the same point in time for several zones.

Prices are considerably higher in the Eastern part of PJM, especially in New Jersey, reflecting the constraints associated with moving power into the area.

The maps below have overlain on top of them LMPs at various points in time during the day.  These LMPs are color coded and contoured by price.  Here is the price legend:

11:30 AM – Most of the grid between $26/MWh to $30/MWh (teal).  Northern New Jersey at $68/MWh (yellow).

1:15 PM – Higher prices expand west out of New Jersey into Pennsylvania and also down the East Coast, ranging from $68/MWH to $115/MWh (yellow and light brown).  Negative prices appear in southern Virginia (dark blue).  This excursion only last 10 minutes.

2:30 PM – Prices reach $250/MWh to $300/MWh in northern New Jersey (darker brown).

3:50 PM – $300/MWh to $400/MWh prices extend into Pennsylvania, northeast Maryland, and down the Delmarva Peninsula.  Chicago enjoys $20/MWh energy.

5:35 PM – New Jersey and most of Pennsylvania back to $56/MWH to $62/MWH range.  Locally, from Allentown to Philadelphia, prices are higher at $68/MWH to $76/MWh.

5:45 PM – Prices fall into the $34/MWh to $76/MWh range across the grid except for $200/MWh to $250/MWh excursion reaching in from the Southern Tier of New York.

The prices discussed above are wholesale prices.  For comparison, Pepco residential customers are currently paying 8.6 cents per kilowatt-hour (the equivalent of $86 per megawatt-hour) for electricity supply.  Of this amount, approximately 6 cents per kilowatt-hour represents the cost of energy ($60 per megawatt-hour).  By comparing, on just this one day, prices in the wholesale market to those in the retail market, one can get a sense of the commodity price risk wholesale electricity suppliers take on when contracting to supply customers with fixed price energy.

Notes:

– “PJM” refers to the PJM Interconnection which is a Regional Transmission Organization and operates the electric transmission system serving all or parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

– Data and maps from PJM.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484- 8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Avalon Energy Services Completes New Energy Supply Contracts on Behalf of Clarion Partners

Avalon Energy Services recently completed an electricity procurement process for five properties in Washington, DC owned by Clarion Partners, LLC. Under the new supply contracts, the five buildings will pay 27% less, in aggregate, than what they currently pay under existing contracts.  Avalon Energy Services’ press release related to this was picked up by a number of news organizations.  Read the full press release, as reported by NASDAQ OMX GlobeNewswire here.

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Energy Prices Always Go Up (continued)

As discussed on this blog, there is a common perception that energy prices have been, and continue to be, on a one way path upwards.  In previous posts we focused on natural gas and showed that rather than rising, natural gas prices have, in fact, fallen dramatically, over both the short run and the long run (see here and here).

Electricity prices in PJM continued to fall last year as well.

First some background.  PJM is the independent electric grid operator in the Mid-Atlantic and parts of the Mid-West and is responsible for the reliability of the electric transmission system and, equally importantly, managing the market for wholesale electricity and related services throughout its operating territory (as well as into and out of PJM).  Below is a map of the territory PJM covers.

PJM has many pricing points individually referred to as locational marginal prices (LMPs).  LMP is the pricing mechanism for wholesale power in PJM.  LMPs vary by location when transmission congestion exists.  LMPs can be nodal or zonal.  Nodes refer to specific buses.  Zonal LMPs correspond to PJM transmission zones.  Energy prices are established in both the day-ahead and real-time markets.  When referring to LMPs over time, they are often presented as “average prices” or as “load weighted average prices.”  The later accounts for the amount of load at a node or in a zone during each hour over the total measurement period.  All in, PJM keeps track of over 10,000 LMPs.

So, back to the story.  During 2010, PJM zonal day-ahead load weighted average locational marginal prices averaged $50.92 per megawatt-hour (MWh).  This weighted average price dropped to $48.69 per MWh during 2011, a 4.4% decline.  LMPs vary significantly by zone, as shown on the graph below.

The change in average LMPs between 2010 and 2011 varied considerably by zone.  LMPs dropped about 10% in the PSEG and Pepco zones.  There were some exceptions to the overall decline in LMPs, such as in the AEP zone, in which the average LMP increased.  A sampling of zonal price changes is presented in the table below.

This overall decline can also be seen in the contraction of prices into the lower end of the frequency distribution shown below.

From January 2001 to the present, LMPs in PJM have averaged $55.81 per MWh.  Current LMP prices are well below this average, as shown on the graph below (in red).


Do energy prices always go up?  The answer is “no” as it relates to electricity and natural gas prices.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484- 8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Cape Wind

It was recently reported that a power purchase agreement between National Grid and Cape Wind was approved by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. National Grid is committed to purchasing half of the output of the project at a starting price of 18.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. This price will then escalate 3.5% per year for 15 years.

With this 3.5% annual compounding, the contract price will reach 30.3 cents/kWh in the fifteenth year. Over the term of the agreement, the average price from Cape Wind will be 24.1 cents/kWh. How do these prices for wind generated electricity compare to historical electricity prices in New England?

The above graph shows the daily price of electricity in NEPOOL over the period of time spanning 2001 through 2011 (blue line). NEPOOL is New England’s bulk electric power market. In New England, as is the case elsewhere, electricity prices exhibit considerable volatility. Over this eleven year period, daily electricity prices have been as high as 31.2 cents/kWh and as low as 2.5 cents/kWh, and have averaged 6.3 cents per kWh (red line).

Electricity prices in New England have been declining. Since the beginning of 2009, daily electricity prices have averaged 5.2 cents/kWh.

So, how does the cost of electricity from the Cape Wind project compare to historical prices in New England? In order to provide a visual sense, the two graphs above are reproduced below, each modified to have the same vertical axis scale. In both cases, the horizontal red line represents the historical average wholesale price of 6.3 cents/kWh.

Cape Wind’s website describes their project as consisting of 130 wind turbines that can produce up to 430 megawatts of electricity. Assuming a 25% capacity factor and the application of both the historical average NEPOOL price and the average Cape Wind contract price to the total projected output of the wind farm, the annual difference in cost is estimated to be $167 million.

The Cape Wind project represents a large, long position in what today is expensive electricity with a fixed escalator. This analysis is limited and does not reflect future price movements (up or down) in the cost of electricity associated with the existing and future fleet of generation in New England nor the environmental, social and operational costs and benefits associated with the existing and future fleet of generation and the Cape Wind project.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC

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Best Friends? – Natural Gas and Electricity Prices

We have looked at historical and forward natural gas prices. How have electricity prices been behaving?

The graph above shows the monthly average of electricity prices at PJM West (a trading hub where electric generation is concentrated) spanning the 131 month period of time of January 2001 through November 2011. Like natural gas, electricity prices peaked during 2008, declined, recovered somewhat, and then declined again. The relationship between electricity prices and natural gas prices can be seen better in the graph below:

Please note that in this graph electricity prices have been converted to cents per kilowatt-hour. When plotted together, electricity prices and natural gas prices seem to track closely, and the reality is that they are closely related. In the Mid-Atlantic, electricity prices and natural gas prices are strongly correlated. Natural gas fired generating units are usually the marginal units called upon by the grid operator and, as such, set pricing in the wholesale markets. So, generally in the Mid-Atlantic, as natural gas prices go, so go electricity prices.

While electricity price and natural gas prices tend to move together, the relationship between the two does change over time.

The graph above shows the correlation on a rolling 24 month basis. Over this period, the correlation between electricity and natural gas averaged 71% but has been as high as 97% and as low as 21%. The weakest correlation was during 2008, when natural gas prices moved upward more vigorously than did electricity prices. After having moving up to 97%, the correlation has been declining over the last two years.

In the above graphs, you can see how over the last two years, electricity prices have recovered more strongly than natural gas prices, leading to declining correlations between the two.

The Avalon Advantage – Visit our website at www.avalonenergy.us, call us at 888-484-8096, or email us at jmcdonnell@avalonenergy.us.

Copyright 2012 by Avalon Energy® Services LLC